Skip to content

The European Socio-economic Classification

Table 1: The European Socio-economic Classification

ESeC Class

Common Term

Employment regulation


Large employers, higher grade professional, administrative and managerial occupations

Higher salariat

Service Relationship


Lower grade professional, administrative and managerial occupations and higher grade technician and supervisory occupations

Lower salariat

Service Relationship (modified)


Intermediate occupations

Higher grade white collar workers



Small employer and self employed occupations (exc agriculture etc)

Petit bourgeoisie or independents



Self employed occupations (agriculture etc)

Petit bourgeoisie or independents



Lower supervisory and lower technician occupations

Higher grade blue collar workers



Lower services, sales and clerical occupations

Lower grade white collar workers

Labour Contract (modified)


Lower technical occupations*

Skilled workers

Labour Contract (modified)


Routine occupations*

Semi- and non-skilled workers

Labour Contract


Never worked and long-term unemployed



* If analysts wish to identify agricultural workers separately from others, classes 8 and 9 may be sub-divided in to 8a, 8b, 9a and 9b. In each case sub-classes 8b and 9b would be for farm workers. ISCO minor groups 600 and 610-613 go to 8b. 614 and 615 could go here if analysts wished to include forestry and fishing workers in 8b. ISCO 920 and 921 form class 9b. Readers should note that in cases where we refer to minor groups ending with a zero (e.g. 600, 610, 920), this refers to the convention that this code is employed where it is not possible (either because of lack of information or because of the need to ensure respondent anonymity) to code occupation more precisely to a particular minor group.