Skip to content

Understanding Society Working Paper Series 2014-05

Impact of mixed modes on measurement errors and estimates of change in panel data


Publication date

18 Jul 2014


Mixed modes (MM) are receiving increased interest as a possible solution for saving costs in panel surveys, although the lasting effects on data quality are unknown. To better understand the effects of MM on panel data I will examine its impact on random and systematic error and on estimates of change. The SF12, a health scale, in the Understanding Society Innovation Panel is used for the analysis. Results indicate that only one variable out of 12 has systematic differences due to MM. Also, three of the SF12 items overestimate variance of change in time in the MM design. I conclude that using a MM design leads to minor measurement differences but it can result in the overestimation of individual change compared to a single mode approach.

Paper download  

Related publications

  1. Impact of mode design on measurement errors and estimates of individual change

    Alexandru Cernat


Research home

Research home


Latest findings, new research

Publications search

Search all research by subject and author


Researchers discuss their findings and what they mean for society


Background and context, methods and data, aims and outputs


Conferences, seminars and workshops

Survey methodology

Specialist research, practice and study

Taking the long view

ISER's annual report


Key research themes and areas of interest