Skip to content

ISER Working Paper Series 2011-05

Factor rotation with non-negativity constraints


Publication date

14 Feb 2011


Factor rotation is widely used to interpret the estimated factor loadings from latent variable models. Rotation methods embody a priori concepts of 'complexity' of factor structures, which they seek to minimise. Surprisingly, it is rare for researchers to exploit one of the most common and powerful sources of a priori information: non-negativity of factor loadings. This paper develops a method of incorporating sign restrictions in factor rotation, exploiting a recently-developed test for multiple inequality constraints. An application to the measurement of disability demonstrates the feasibility of the method and the power of non-negativity restrictions.


Statistical Mathematics and Survey Methodology

Paper download  


Research home

Research home


Latest findings, new research

Publications search

Search all research by subject and author


Researchers discuss their findings and what they mean for society


Background and context, methods and data, aims and outputs


Conferences, seminars and workshops

Survey methodology

Specialist research, practice and study

Taking the long view

ISER's annual report


Key research themes and areas of interest