Occupation and COVID-19 mortality in England: a national linked data study of 14.3 million adults

Publication type

Journal Article


Publication date

July 15, 2022


Objectives: To estimate occupational differences in COVID-19 mortality and test whether these are confounded by factors such as regional differences, ethnicity and education or due to non-workplace factors, such as deprivation or prepandemic health.

Methods: Using a cohort study of over 14 million people aged 40–64 years living in England, we analysed occupational differences in death involving COVID-19, assessed between 24 January 2020 and 28 December 2020.

We estimated age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 person-years at risk stratified by sex and occupation. We estimated the effect of occupation on COVID-19 mortality using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for confounding factors. We further adjusted for non-workplace factors and interpreted the residual effects of occupation as being due to workplace exposures to SARS-CoV-2.

Results: In men, the ASMRs were highest among those working as taxi and cab drivers or chauffeurs at 119.7 deaths per 100 000 (95% CI 98.0 to 141.4), followed by other elementary occupations at 106.5 (84.5 to 132.4) and care workers and home carers at 99.2 (74.5 to 129.4). Adjusting for confounding factors strongly attenuated the HRs for many occupations, but many remained at elevated risk. Adjusting for living conditions reduced further the HRs, and many occupations were no longer at excess risk. For most occupations, confounding factors and mediators other than workplace exposure to SARS-CoV-2 explained 70%–80% of the excess age-adjusted occupational differences.

Conclusions: Working conditions play a role in COVID-19 mortality, particularly in occupations involving contact with patients or the public. However, there is also a substantial contribution from non-workplace factors.

Published in

Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Volume and page numbers

Volume: 79 , p.433 -441







Uses Understanding Society data (not Understanding Society - COVID-19 Study, 2020)

Understanding Society data used to analyse occupational mobility across major (one-digit SOC codes) groups between 2011 and 2019

Free Access

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

This article is made freely available for personal use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.

Referenced by: Great Britain. Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (2022) 'COVID-19 and occupational impacts: presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by Command of His Majesty', UK Parliament Command Papers, session 2022/23, No. CP 740. London: Controller of His Majesty's Stationery Office.



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