Does immigrant generation matter? Re-examining the ethnic density effects on mental health of ethnic minorities in Britain

Publication type

Journal Article


Publication date

September 15, 2019


Objectives: In this study, we extend previous research by re-examining the ethnic density effects on mental health of British ethnic minorities and exploring how the relationship varies across generations at a lower geographic scale Lower Super Output Areas (official census geographical classification designed for the consistent reporting of local statistics). Methods: We used random intercept logistic multilevel models to analyze the second wave (2010-2011) of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Results: The results show that after controlling for neighborhood deprivation, respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, duration of stay in a neighborhood and moving preference, ethnic concentration has a detrimental effect on mental health for Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, black Caribbeans and black Africans. Moreover, the results show that the detrimental effects are particularly pronounced for the first-generation Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Indians compared to their second-generation counterparts. Conclusions: Policy interventions to ameliorate ethnic disadvantages in mental health may need to be more targeted to first-generation South Asian minorities living in ethnically clustered areas, and that previous research overlooking migration generation may conceal important internal differences within British ethnic minorities.

Published in

American Journal of Health Behavior

Volume and page numbers

Volume: 43 , p.924 -936









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