Re-employment, job quality, health and allostatic load biomarkers: prospective evidence from the UK Household Longitudinal Study

Publication type

Journal Article


Publication date

February 15, 2018


Background: There is little evidence on whether becoming re-employed in poor quality work is better for health and well-being than remaining unemployed. We examined associations of job transition with health and chronic stress-related biomarkers among a population-representative cohort of unemployed British adults. Methods: A prospective cohort of 1116 eligible participants aged 35 to 75 years, who were unemployed at wave 1 (2009/10) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, were followed up at waves 2 (2010/11) and 3 (2011/12) for allostatic load biomarkers and selfreported health. Negative binomial and multiple regression models estimated the association between job adversity and these outcomes. Results: Compared with adults who remained unemployed, formerly unemployed adults who transitioned into poor quality jobs had higher levels of overall allostatic load (0.51, 0.32–0.71), log HbA1c (0.06, <0.001–0.12), log triglycerides (0.39, 0.22–0.56), log C-reactive protein (0.45, 0.16–0.75), log fibrinogen (0.09, 0.01–0.17) and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (1.38, 0.88–1.88). Moreover, physically healthier respondents at wave 1 were more likely to transition into good quality and poor quality jobs after 1 year than those who remained unemployed. Conclusions: Formerly unemployed adults who transitioned into poor quality work had greater adverse levels of biomarkers compared with their peers who remained unemployed. The selection of healthier unemployed adults into these poor quality or stressful jobs was unlikely to explain their elevated levels of chronic stress-related biomarkers. Job quality cannot be disregarded from the employment success of the unemployed, and may have important implications for their health and well-being.

Published in

International Journal of Epidemiology

Volume and page numbers

Volume: 47 , p.47 -57






Is referenced by: Tinson, A. (2020) ‘What the quality of work means for our health’. London: Health Foundation

Open Access

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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