Women and Equalities Select Committee – employment opportunities for Muslims in the UK: written evidence

Publication type

Parliamentary Paper

Publication date

February 15, 2016


Executive Summary: Pakistani and Bangladeshi are less likely to have a job than white British people, but the difference in employment among women is smaller than the difference among men ; Differences in employment rates between Pakistani and Bangladeshi and white British people have been decreasing over time. The recession had a negative impact on employment for all workers with the exception of Pakistani men and women and Bangladeshi women ; Pakistani and Bangladeshi people are more likely than any other group to be paid below the living wage. They are paid on average less than the white British and differences in pay among men are much larger than differences in pay among women ; Among men, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis who were born abroad show the largest pay disadvantage compared to white British men, while those who were born in the UK experience a much smaller pay disadvantage ; The pay disadvantage for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women who were born abroad is smaller compared to white British women than the pay disadvantage of Pakistani and Bangladeshi men born in the UK. There is no pay disadvantage for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women born in the UK compared to white British women ; Pakistanis and Bangladeshis concentrate in poorly paid occupations. Part of their pay disadvantage is also related to their Muslim religion. Their concentration in London partly hides their pay disadvantage ; Pakistanis and Bangladeshis with British nationality who graduate from UK universities are less likely to find a job than white British graduates although the difference seems to decrease with time spent in the labour market ; Among British graduates, Pakistani and Bangladeshi men are paid similarly to white British men but Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are paid less than white British women.





References: Brynin, M. and Longhi, S. (2015). The effect of occupation on poverty among ethnic minority groups. York:Joseph Rowntree Foundation ; Fisher, P. and Nandi, A. (2015) Poverty across ethnic groups through recession and austerity. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation ; Longhi S. and Brynin M. (2016) Ethnic Pay Gaps and their Causes, Equality and Human Rights Commission Report, forthcoming ; Zwysen W. and Longhi S. (2016) Labour Market Disadvantage of Ethnic Minority British Graduates: University Choice, Parental Background or Neighbourhood?, ISER Working Paper Series, No. 2016-02. Colchester: University of Essex. Institute for Social and Economic Research.



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