A method for evaluating mode effects in mixed-mode surveys

Publication type

Journal Article


Publication date

June 1, 2010


Survey designs in which data from different groups of respondents are collected by different survey modes have become increasingly popular. However, such mixed-mode (MM) designs lead to a confounding of selection effects and measurement effects (measurement error) caused by mode differences. Consequently, MM data have poor quality. Nevertheless, comparing MM data with data from a comparable single-mode survey allows researchers to measure selection effects and measurement effects separately. The authors develop a method to evaluate mode effects and illustrate this method with data from a Dutch MM experiment within the European Social Survey program. In this experiment, respondents could choose between three modes: a Web survey, a telephone interview, or a face-to-face interview. Mode effects on three political variables are evaluated: interest in politics, perceived complexity of politics, and voter turnout in the last national election.

© The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Published in

Public Opinion Quarterly

Volume and page numbers

Volume: 74 , p.1 -1







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