How Representative are the ESS Samples?

Publication type

Conference Paper


European Social Survey Conference


Publication date

November 26, 2003


The ESS has used innovative methods to ensure that the samples interviewed are of the highest possible quality and are comparable between countries. In this paper, we will describe why it was important for the ESS to pay close attention to sample design, outline some key achievements of the ESS with respect to sample design, and provide some guidance to ESS data users on what they need to know about sample design.

In particular, we will describe key aspects of the sample specification and delivery of support and assistance to each country. We believe that these processes represent a significant advance on the implementation of other cross-national surveys and have resulted in improvements both in cross-national comparability and in survey standards in many individual countries.



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