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Journal Article

Time and place: putting individual health into context. A multilevel analysis of the British Household Panel Survey


Publication date

Sep 2006


Examination of the extent to which time and place affect people's health has been constrained by the resources available to answer this question. A British longitudinal, nationally representative survey of 8301 adults aged 16 years and older living in private households was used to consider the influence of household membership, area of residence and time using multilevel logistic regression. Self-rated health was assessed by general health and limiting illness during periods characterized by economic decline (1992), economic improvement (1996) and prosperity (2000). There was modest evidence of clustering of poor general health within areas and stronger support for within household similarities in general health which increased over time. Individual, household and area level deprivation accounted for almost all the area-level variability but had little effect on household variance. There was greater evidence of clustering of limiting illness within areas: deprivation did not account for this to any great extent. Area differences in general health reduced as the economy improved but time trends in differences in limiting illness lagged behind the timing of economic recovery. Both time and place are shown to affect self-rated health although the processes may differ depending on the health outcome.

Published in

Health and Place

Volume and page numbers

12 , 279 -290



Health and Surveys


University of Essex, Albert Sloman Library Periodicals *restricted to University of Essex registered users* -


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